×
Home Current Archive Editorial board
News Contact
Pregledni rad – Review Paper

A REWIEW OF PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ANISE (PIMPINELLA ANISUM L.)

By
Milica Aćimović ,
Milica Aćimović

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Nevena Dojčinović
Nevena Dojčinović

Faculty of Science, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract

Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) is an annual plant that belongs to the Apiaceae family. It is grown for fruit (Anisi fructus), containing 2-3% essential oil (Anisi aethroleum) with trans-anethole which is a dominant compound and has a characteristic sweet taste and smell. Anise is used in folk medicine in many countries for treatment of digestive, respiratory and neurological diseases, as well as natural estrogen. It has been found recently to have anti-cancer, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, and in many countries anise is included in the pharmacopeias as the official drug. This paper provides an overview of the use of anise with scientifically confirmed effects.

Anis is generally recommended as a carminative, digestive agent and improves the regulation of digestion. Experiments showed that anise, in combination with other plants is a safe and efficient alternative therapy for chronic constipation. Also, it was found that anise increases the secretion of salivary glands leading to an increase of pH in the mouth. Furthermore, it can be used for mechanically rinsing the oral cavity, thereby removing dental plaque. Apart from possessing antibacterial activity, anis is effective in the suppression of bacteria which cause dental caries. Anise fruit extract significantly decreases the gastric acid secretion and acidity and thereby inhibits the formation of ulcers in the stomach.

It was experimentally confirmed that the extract of anise has a hepatoprotective effect, i.e. its application leads to a significant improvement of the destructive changes in the liver, caused by CCl4 and the artificialsweetener aspartame. Additionally, it possesses anti-diabetic activity, i.e. anise significantly increases glucose absorption in the small intestine, while having no effect on the amount of the water absorbed from the colon. In adition, anise significantly reduces the diuresis. The introduction of anise in the diet ensures that the glucose is available to cells and that water is conserved in the body thus preventing dehydration.

In many countries, anis is recommended for the treatment of the respiratory tract. Experiments have shown the bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory effect of anise, thus confirming its effectiveness in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Also, anise is used throughout the world in the treatment of neurological diseases. Studies have found that the plant works as an antiepileptic and as an analgesic.

Anise is a herb that has been used for centuries as an estrogenic agent. In women with symptoms of primary dysmenorrhoea the application of anise leads to a reduction of the bleeding period and menstrual pain. In postmenopausal women it effectively reduces hot flashes. In addition, anise acts preventively on osteoporosis caused by estrogen deficiency as it retains calcium in the bones.

By using modern scientific methods it has been found that the reactive oxygen species cause oxidative damage to biomolecules, which as a result form many acute and chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, aging, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, myocardial infarction, apoplexy, chronic inflammation, etc. Anise shows high antioxidant activity. Furthermore, it can be classified as a food for prevention and treatment of cancer, because it was found to have cytostatic activity on human prostate cancer cells and is safe for normal cells.

Numerous studies found a wide range of anise effects on microorganisms. It works on bacteria as gram positive and gram-negative, which indicates a high antibacterial potential of this plant, especially if we take into account production costs, availability and efficiency. It can be concluded that the extract is effective and inexpensive alternative to synthetic antibiotics. Additionally, in contrast to synthetic antibiotics, bacteria do not develop resistance to phytochemicals. A large number of fungi on which the anise essential oil has antifungal effects are confirmed. The same effect was observed on viruses such as Herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, measles viruses and amoebas (Entamoeba histolytica) that cause dysentery. All this classifies anise as a functional food against infectious diseases.

References

[{"id":621,"citationNumber":"1.","type":"article-journal","title":"of volatiles obtained from spices by microdistillation","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Kurkcuoglu","family":"M."},{"given":"Sargin","family":"N."},{"given":"Baser","family":"K.H.C"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2003"]},"container-title":"Chemistry of Natural Compounds","volume":"39","issue":"4","page":"355\u2013357"}]

[{"id":622,"citationNumber":"2.","type":"article-journal","title":"Essential oil composition of Pimpinella anisum L. fruits from various European countries","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Orav","family":"A."},{"given":"Raal","family":"A."},{"given":"Arak","family":"E"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2008"]},"container-title":"Natural Product Research","volume":"22","issue":"3","page":"227\u2013232"}]

[{"id":623,"citationNumber":"3.","type":"book","title":"Illicum, Pimpinella and Foeniculum","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Jodral","family":"M.M"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2004"]},"container-title":null,"volume":null,"issue":null,"page":"12"}]

[{"id":624,"citationNumber":"4.","type":"article-journal","title":"of a Turkish traditional aniseed flavoured distilled spirit, raki","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Yucesoy","family":"D."},{"given":"Ozen","family":"B"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2013"]},"container-title":"Food Chemistry","volume":"141","issue":null,"page":"1461\u20131465"}]

[{"id":625,"citationNumber":"5.","type":"article-journal","title":"in essential oil content and composition in Turkish anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) populations","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Arslan","family":"N."},{"given":"Gurbuz B.And Sarihan","family":"E.O"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2004"]},"container-title":"Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestery","volume":"28","issue":null,"page":"173\u2013177"}]

[{"id":626,"citationNumber":"6.","type":"book","title":"Lekovito bilje: gajenje, sakupljanje, upotreba","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"J.","family":"Ki\u0161geci"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2002"]},"container-title":null,"volume":null,"issue":null,"page":null}]

[{"id":627,"citationNumber":"7.","type":"article-journal","title":"Effects of Pimpinella anisum extract on salivary counts of Streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine in vivo","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Al-Muhsen","family":"S.S."},{"given":"Al-Qbaidi","family":"W.A"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2012"]},"container-title":"Journal ofCollegeofDentistry","volume":"24","issue":"1","page":"131\u2013134"}]

[{"id":628,"citationNumber":"8.","type":"article-journal","title":"2007):Aqueous suspension of anise \u201ePimpinella anisum\u201c protects rats against chemically induced gastric ulcers","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Al-Mofleh","family":"I.A."},{"given":"Alhaider","family":"A.A."},{"given":"Mossa","family":"J.S."},{"given":"Al-Soohaibani","family":"M.O."},{"given":"Rafatullah","family":"S"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[null]},"container-title":"World Journal of Gastroenterology","volume":"13","issue":"7","page":"1112\u20131118"}]

[{"id":629,"citationNumber":"9.","type":"article-journal","title":"Antispasmodic and relaxant effects of the hidroalcoholic extract of Pimpinella anisum (Apiaceae) on rat anococcygeus smooth muscle","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Tirapelli","family":"C.R."},{"given":"Andrade","family":"C.R."},{"given":"Cassano","family":"A.O."},[],{"given":"Ambrosio","family":"S.R."},{"given":"Costa","family":"F.B."},{"given":"Oliveira","family":"A.M"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2007"]},"container-title":"Journal of Ethnopharmacology","volume":"110","issue":null,"page":"23\u201329"}]

[{"id":630,"citationNumber":"10.","type":"article-journal","title":"Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Picon","family":"P.D."},{"given":"Picon","family":"R.V."},{"given":"Costa","family":"A.F."},{"given":"Sander","family":"G.B."},{"given":"Amaral","family":"K.M."},{"given":"Aboy","family":"K.M."},{"given":"Henriques","family":"A.T"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2010"]},"container-title":"BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine","volume":"10","issue":"17","page":"6882 10 17"}]

[{"id":631,"citationNumber":"11.","type":"article-journal","title":"Hepatoprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum seed extract in rats","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Cengiz","family":"N."},{"given":"\u00d6zbek","family":"H."},{"given":"Him","family":"A"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2008"]},"container-title":"Pharmacologyonline","volume":"3","issue":null,"page":"870\u2013874"}]

[{"id":632,"citationNumber":"12.","type":"article-journal","title":"The effect of aspartame on the histological structure of the liver and renal cortex of adult male albino rat and the possible protective effect of Pimpinella anisum oil","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"El-Haliem","family":"N.G.A."},{"given":"Mohamed","family":"D.S"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2011"]},"container-title":"The Egyptian Journal of Histology","volume":"34","issue":"4","page":"715\u2013726"}]

[{"id":633,"citationNumber":"13.","type":"article-journal","title":"Comparison of aniseeds and coriander seeds for antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Rajeshwari","family":"U."},{"given":"Shobha","family":"I."},{"given":"Andallu","family":"B"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2011"]},"container-title":"Spatula","volume":"1","issue":"1","page":"9\u201316"}]

[{"id":634,"citationNumber":"14.","type":"article-journal","title":"Anti-peroxidative and anti-diabetic activities of aniseeds (Pimpinella anisum L.) and identification of bioactive compounds","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Shobha","family":"R.I."},{"given":"Rajeshwari","family":"C.U."},{"given":"Andallu","family":"B"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2013"]},"container-title":"American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics","volume":"1","issue":"5","page":"516\u2013527"}]

[{"id":635,"citationNumber":"15.","type":"article-journal","title":"Aniseed oil increases glucose absorption and reduces urine output in the rat","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Kreydiyyeh","family":"S.I."},{"given":"Usta","family":"J."},{"given":"Knio","family":"K."},{"given":"Markossian","family":"S."},{"given":"Dagher","family":"S"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2003"]},"container-title":"Life Sciences","volume":"74","issue":"663-673","page":"13"}]

[{"id":636,"citationNumber":"16.","type":"article-journal","title":"The fruit essential oil of Pimpinella anisum exerts anticonvulsant effects in mice","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Pourgholami","family":"M.H."},{"given":"Majzoob","family":"S."},{"given":"Javadi","family":"M."},{"given":"Kamalinejad","family":"M."},{"given":"Fanaee","family":"G.H.R."},{"given":"Sayyah","family":"M"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["1999"]},"container-title":"Journal of Ethnopharmacology","volume":"66","issue":null,"page":"211\u2013215"}]

[{"id":637,"citationNumber":"17.","type":"article-journal","title":"Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum in rat brain","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Karimzadeh","family":"F."},{"given":"Hosseini","family":"M."},{"given":"Mangeng","family":"D."},{"given":"Alavi","family":"H."},{"given":"Hassanzadeh","family":"G.R."},{"given":"Bayat","family":"M."},{"given":"Jafarian","family":"M."},{"given":"Kazemi","family":"H."},{"given":"Gorji","family":"A"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2012"]},"container-title":"BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine","volume":"12","issue":"76","page":null}]

[{"id":638,"citationNumber":"18.","type":"book","title":"Lekovito bilje i njegova upotreba","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"R.","family":"Vilfort"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2009"]},"container-title":null,"volume":null,"issue":null,"page":null}]

[{"id":639,"citationNumber":"19.","type":"book","title":"Le\u010denje biljem: fitoterapija","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"J.","family":"Tucakov"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2006"]},"container-title":null,"volume":null,"issue":null,"page":null}]

[{"id":640,"citationNumber":"20.","type":"article-journal","title":"the fruit essential oil of Pimpinella anisum L. (Umbelliferae) induces neuronal hyperexcitability in snail partly through attenuation of afterhyperpolarization","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Janahmadi","family":"M."},{"given":"Farajnia","family":"S."},{"given":"Vatanparast","family":"J."},{"given":"Abbasipour","family":"H."},{"given":"Kamalinejad","family":"M"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2008"]},"container-title":"Journal of Ethnopharmacology","volume":"120","issue":null,"page":"360\u2013365"}]

[{"id":641,"citationNumber":"21.","type":"article-journal","title":"Analgesic effect of Pimpinella anisum L. essential oil extract in mice","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"A.","family":"Tas"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2009"]},"container-title":"Indian Veterinary Journal","volume":"86","issue":null,"page":"145\u2013147"}]

[{"id":642,"citationNumber":"22.","type":"article-journal","title":"Effects of Pimpinella anisum on spreading depression in rat neocortical tissue","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Haghir","family":"H."},{"given":"Gorji","family":"A."},{"given":"Hami","family":"J"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2010"]},"container-title":"Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences","volume":"17","issue":"3","page":null}]

[{"id":643,"citationNumber":"23.","type":"article-journal","title":"The influence of essential oil of aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L.) on drug effects on the central nervous system","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Samojlik","family":"I."},{"given":"Mijatovi\u0107","family":"V."},{"given":"Petkovi\u0107","family":"S."},{"given":"\u0160krbi\u0107","family":"B."},{"given":"Bo\u017ein","family":"B"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2012"]},"container-title":"Fitoterapia","volume":"83","issue":null,"page":"1466\u20131473"}]

[{"id":644,"citationNumber":"24.","type":"article-journal","title":"Anticancer activity of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) seed extract","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Kadan S.Rayan","family":"M."},{"given":"RayanA","family":""}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2013"]},"container-title":"The Open Nutraceuticals Journal","volume":"6","issue":null,"page":"1\u20135"}]

[{"id":645,"citationNumber":"25.","type":"article-journal","title":"Relaxant effect of Pimpinella anisum on isolated guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Boskabady","family":"M.H."},{"given":"Ramazani-Assari","family":"M"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2001"]},"container-title":"Journal of Ethnopharmacology","volume":"74","issue":null,"page":"83\u201388"}]

[{"id":646,"citationNumber":"26.","type":"article-journal","title":"In vitro anticholinergic activity of selected culinary spices on sheep airway smooth muscle","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Swamy","family":"P.L."},{"given":"Prasad","family":"V.G.N.V."},{"given":"Krishna","family":"B.V."},{"given":"Rao","family":"T.S."},{"given":"Kumar","family":"L.C.A.K."},{"given":"Rao","family":"G.S"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2013"]},"container-title":"International Journal of Recent Scientific Research","volume":"4","issue":"5","page":"649\u2013653"}]

[{"id":647,"citationNumber":"27.","type":"article-journal","title":"Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"M.","family":"Albert-Puleo"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["1980"]},"container-title":"Journal of Ethnopharmacology","volume":"2","issue":null,"page":"337\u2013344"}]

[{"id":648,"citationNumber":"28.","type":"article-journal","title":"Comparison of the effect of an herbal drug (SCA) and mefenamic acid on primary dysmenorrhoea a clinical control trial","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Khodakrami","family":"N."},{"given":"Moatar","family":"F."},{"given":"Ghahiri","family":"A"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2008"]},"container-title":"Ofogh-e-Danesh. GMUHS Journal","volume":"14","issue":"2","page":"11\u201319"}]

[{"id":649,"citationNumber":"29.","type":"article-journal","title":"The study on the effects of Pimpinella anisum on relief and recurrence of menopausal hot flashes","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Nahidi","family":"F."},{"given":"Kariman","family":"N."},{"given":"Simbar","family":"M."},{"given":"Mojab","family":"F"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2012"]},"container-title":"Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research","volume":"11","issue":"4","page":"14"}]

[{"id":650,"citationNumber":"30.","type":"article-journal","title":"Protective effect of anise fruit (Pimpinella anisum) against osteoporosis in rat model","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Hassan","family":"W.N."},{"given":"Saed","family":"A.M"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2010"]},"container-title":"American Journal of Biomedical Sciences","volume":"3","issue":"1","page":"49\u201356"}]

[{"id":651,"citationNumber":"31.","type":"paper-conference","title":"Effect of anise and fenugreek suplementation on performance of rabit does","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Eiben","family":"C."},{"given":"Rashwan","family":"A.A."},{"given":"Kustos","family":"K."},{"given":"G\u00f3dor-Surmann","family":"K."},{"given":"Szendr\u0151","family":"Z"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2004"]},"container-title":"Proceedings \u2013 8th World Rabbit Congress \u2013 September 7-10","volume":null,"issue":null,"page":"\u2013"}]

[{"id":652,"citationNumber":"32.","type":"article-journal","title":"Oksidativni stres u patogenezi neurodegenerativnih oboljenja","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Z.","family":"Jovanovi\u0107"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2011"]},"container-title":"Medicinski \u010casopis","volume":"45","issue":"1","page":"16\u201323"}]

[{"id":653,"citationNumber":"33.","type":"article-journal","title":"Screening of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) seed extracts","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"G\u00fcl\u00e7in","family":"\u0130."},{"given":"Oktay","family":"M."},{"given":"Kire\u00e7ci","family":"E."},{"given":"K\u00fcfrevio\u011flu","family":"O.\u0130"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2003"]},"container-title":"Food Chemistry","volume":"83","issue":null,"page":"371\u2013382"}]

[{"id":654,"citationNumber":"34.","type":"article-journal","title":"Antioxidant activity of water and alcohol extracts of chamomile flowers, anise seeds and dill seeds","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Al-Ismail","family":"K.M."},{"given":"Aburjai","family":"T"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2004"]},"container-title":"Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture","volume":"84","issue":null,"page":"173\u2013178"}]

[{"id":655,"citationNumber":"35.","type":"article-journal","title":"In vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of aniseed (Pimpinella anisum","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Rajeshwari","family":"C.U."},{"given":"Abirami","family":"M."},{"given":"Andallu","family":"B"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2011"]},"container-title":"Asian Journalof Experimental Biological Sciences","volume":"2","issue":"1","page":"80\u201389"}]

[{"id":656,"citationNumber":"36.","type":"article-journal","title":"Antihemolytic and aniinflammatory activities of aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Iyer","family":"S.R."},{"given":"Rajeshwari C.U.Andallu","family":"B"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2013"]},"container-title":"Journal of Advance Pharmaceutical Research and Bioscience","volume":"1","issue":"2","page":"52\u201359"}]

[{"id":657,"citationNumber":"37.","type":"article-journal","title":"In vitro antibacterial activity of Pimpinella anisum fruit extracts against some pathogenic bacteria","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Akhtar","family":"A."},{"given":"Deshmukh","family":"A.A."},{"given":"Bhonsle","family":"A.V."},{"given":"Kshirsagar","family":"P.M."},{"given":"Kolekar","family":"M.A"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2008"]},"container-title":"Veterinary World","volume":"1","issue":"9","page":"272\u2013274"}]

[{"id":658,"citationNumber":"38.","type":"article-journal","title":"Antimicrobial activities of various medicinal and commercial plant extracts","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Ate\u015f","family":"D.A."},{"given":"Erdo\u011frul","family":"\u00d6.T"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2003"]},"container-title":"Turkish Journal of Biology","volume":"27","issue":null,"page":"157\u2013162"}]

[{"id":659,"citationNumber":"39.","type":"article-journal","title":"Bactericidal activity of black pepper, bay leaf, niseed and coriander against oral isolates","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Chaudhry","family":"N.M.A."},{"given":"Tariq","family":"P"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[null]},"container-title":"Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences","volume":"19","issue":"3","page":"214\u2013218"}]

[{"id":660,"citationNumber":"40.","type":"article-journal","title":"Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Al-Bayati","family":"F.A"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2008"]},"container-title":"Journal of Ethnopharmacology","volume":"116","issue":null,"page":"403\u2013406"}]

[{"id":661,"citationNumber":"41.","type":"article-journal","title":"The effect of bacteria and essential oils on mycotoxin producers isolated from feed of plant origin","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Pa\u0161kevi\u010dius","family":"A."},{"given":"\u0160vediene","family":"J."},{"given":"Levinskaite","family":"L."},{"given":"Repe\u010dkiene","family":"J."},{"given":"Raudoniene","family":"V."},{"given":"Melvydas","family":"V"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2014"]},"container-title":"Veterinarija ir Zootechnika T","volume":"65","issue":"87","page":"52\u201360"}]

[{"id":662,"citationNumber":"42.","type":"article-journal","title":"Antifungal activity of fluid extract and essential oil from anise fruits (Pimpinella anisum L., Apiaceae","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Kosalec","family":"I."},{"given":"Pepeljnjak","family":"S."},{"given":"Ku\u0161trak","family":"D"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2005"]},"container-title":"Acta Pharmaceutica","volume":"55","issue":null,"page":"377\u2013385"}]

[{"id":663,"citationNumber":"43.","type":"article-journal","title":"Anethole, a sinergist of polygodial against filamentous microorganisms","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Kubo","family":"I."},{"given":"Himejima","family":"M"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["1991"]},"container-title":"Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry","volume":"39","issue":null,"page":"2290\u20132292"}]

[{"id":664,"citationNumber":"44.","type":"article-journal","title":"Antifungal activity of dried extract of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) and star anise (Ilicium verum Hook.f.) against dermatophyte and saprophyte fungi","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Yazdani","family":"D."},{"given":"Rezazadeh","family":"S."},{"given":"Amin","family":"G."},{"given":"Zainal","family":"A.M.A."},{"given":"Shahnazi","family":"S."},{"given":"Jamalifar","family":"H"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2009"]},"container-title":"Journal of Medicinal Plants","volume":"8","issue":"5","page":"24\u201329"}]

[{"id":665,"citationNumber":"45.","type":"article-journal","title":"Antiviral and immunostimulating effects of lignin-carbohydrate-protein complex from Pimpinella anisum","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Lee","family":"J.B."},{"given":"Yamagishi","family":"C."},{"given":"Hayashy","family":"K."},{"given":"Hayashi","family":"T"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2011"]},"container-title":"Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry","volume":"75","issue":"3","page":"100645\u20131"}]

[{"id":666,"citationNumber":"46.","type":"article-journal","title":"In vitro study of antiamoebic activity of methanol extract of fruit of Pimpinella anisum on trophozoites of Entamoeba histolityca HM1-IMSS","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Quinones-Gutierrez","family":"Y."},{"given":"Verde-Star","family":"M.J."},{"given":"Rivas-Morales","family":"C."},{"given":"Oranday-Cardenas","family":"A."},{"given":"Mercado-Hernandez","family":"R."},{"given":"Chavez-Montes","family":"A."},{"given":"Barron-Gonzalez","family":"M.P"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2013"]},"container-title":"African Journal of Biotechnology","volume":"12","issue":"16","page":"2065\u20132068"}]

Citation

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 

Article metrics

Google scholar: See link

The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publisher and the editor(s). We stay neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.