×
Home Current Archive Editorial board
News Contact
Research Article

GC/MS chemical analysis of lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia) hydrolat: successive extraction fractions

By
Dejan Pljevljakušić ,
Dejan Pljevljakušić
Contact Dejan Pljevljakušić

Institute for Medicinal Plants Research "Dr. Josif Pančić", Belgrade, Serbia

Zorica Drinić
Zorica Drinić

Institute for Medicinal Plants Research "Dr. Josif Pančić", Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract

Hydrolats are valuable co-products of the essential oil distillation process, whose volatile compounds can be quantified by various methods. In this paper, we have tried to estimate the liquid-liquid extraction cycle number threshold for volatile compounds quantification of lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia) hydrolat. For this purpose, ten consecutive hydrolat extractions with \textit{n}-hexane were analyzed GC/MS with hexadecane (C16) as an internal standard and compared with the lavandin essential oil. The chemical composition of the lavandinhydrolat showed similarity with its essential oil to the great extent, while volatile compounds dissolved in hydrolat exclusively belonged to the class of oxygenated monoterpenes. The total amount of extracted compounds has been estimated to 2174.2 mg/L, where the most dominant compounds in lavandinhydrolat were cis- and trans-furanoidlinalool oxide (676.3 and 634.1 mg/L, respectively), followed by much smaller amounts of linalool, camphor, and 1,8-cineole (167.6, 157.0, and 148.2 mg/L, respectively). Cumulative recoveries of total compounds yield after the third, fifth, and eighth extractions were 88 %, 96 %, and 99 %, respectively. Combined fraction analysis confirmed that in the first 5 cycles more than 95 % of the total yield (from 10 cycles) of extracted volatile compounds can be collected. Based on the results of this study, for volatile compounds quantification in lavandinhydrolat, 5 cycles of \textit{n}-hexane liquid-liquid extraction can be recommended.


 

References

[{"id":3908,"citationNumber":"1.","type":"book","title":"Identification of essential oil components by Gas Chromatography\/Mass Spectorscopy","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"R.P.","family":"Adams"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2007"]},"container-title":null,"volume":null,"issue":null,"page":null}]

[{"id":3909,"citationNumber":"2.","type":"article-journal","title":"Chemical composition, yield and contents of essential oil of Lavandula hybrida Reverchon grown under different nitrogen fertilizer, plant density and location","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"O.","family":"Arabaci"},{"given":"E.","family":"Bayram"},{"given":"H.","family":"Baydar"},{"given":"A.F.","family":"Savran"},{"given":"T.","family":"Karadogan"},{"given":"N.","family":"Ozay"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2007"]},"container-title":"Asian Journal of Chemistry","volume":"19","issue":null,"page":"2184\u20132192"}]

[{"id":3910,"citationNumber":"3.","type":"journal-article","title":"Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of IranianLavandula\u00a0\u00d7\u00a0hybrida","DOI":"10.1002\/cbdv.201700064","author":[{"given":"Iman","family":"Bajalan"},{"given":"Razieh","family":"Rouzbahani"},{"given":"Abdollah Ghasemi","family":"Pirbalouti"},{"given":"Filippo","family":"Maggi"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2017"]},"container-title":null,"volume":"14","issue":"7","page":"e1700064"}]

[{"id":3911,"citationNumber":"4.","type":"journal-article","title":"Scent Composition of Essential Oil, Concrete, Absolute and Hydrosol from Lavandin (LavandulaxintermediaEmeric ex Loisel.)","DOI":"10.1080\/0972060x.2009.10643702","author":[{"given":"Hasan","family":"Baydar"},{"given":"S\u00fcleyman","family":"Kineci"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2009"]},"container-title":null,"volume":"12","issue":"2","page":"131-136"}]

[{"id":3912,"citationNumber":"5.","type":"journal-article","title":"Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils of Lavandula\u202f\u00d7\u202fintermedia \u2018Budrovka\u2019 and L. angustifolia cultivated in Croatia","DOI":"10.1016\/j.indcrop.2018.06.041","author":[{"given":"Biljana","family":"Bla\u017eekovi\u0107"},{"given":"Weifeng","family":"Yang"},{"given":"Yi","family":"Wang"},{"given":"Chun","family":"Li"},{"given":"Marija","family":"Kindl"},{"given":"Stjepan","family":"Pepeljnjak"},{"given":"Sanda","family":"Vladimir-Kne\u017eevi\u0107"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2018"]},"container-title":null,"volume":"123","issue":null,"page":"173-182"}]

[{"id":3913,"citationNumber":"6.","type":"journal-article","title":"Lavandin (Lavandula\u00a0\u00d7\u00a0intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur) essential oil from Spain: determination of aromatic profile by gas chromatography\u2013mass spectrometry, antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory bioactivities","DOI":"10.1080\/14786419.2015.1043632","author":[{"given":"Alejandro","family":"Carrasco"},{"given":"Ramiro","family":"Martinez-Gutierrez"},{"given":"Virginia","family":"Tomas"},{"given":"Jose","family":"Tudela"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2016"]},"container-title":null,"volume":"30","issue":"10","page":"1123-1130"}]

[{"id":3914,"citationNumber":"7.","type":"book","title":"Hydrosols: The next aromatherapy","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"S.","family":"Catty"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2001"]},"container-title":null,"volume":null,"issue":null,"page":null}]

[{"id":3915,"citationNumber":"8.","type":"journal-article","title":"Impacts of Sample Preparation Methods on Solubility and Antilisterial Characteristics of Essential Oil Components in Milk","DOI":"10.1128\/aem.03010-13","author":[{"given":"Huaiqiong","family":"Chen"},{"given":"P. Michael","family":"Davidson"},{"given":"Qixin","family":"Zhong"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2014"]},"container-title":null,"volume":"80","issue":"3","page":"907-916"}]

[{"id":3916,"citationNumber":"9.Garzoli,","type":"journal-article","title":"Liquid and Vapour Phase of Lavandin (Lavandula \u00d7 intermedia) Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity","DOI":"10.3390\/molecules24152701","author":[{"given":"Stefania","family":"Garzoli"},{"given":"Giovanni","family":"Turchetti"},{"given":"Pierluigi","family":"Giacomello"},{"given":"Antonio","family":"Tiezzi"},{"given":"Valentina","family":"Laghezza Masci"},{"given":"Elisa","family":"Ovidi"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[null]},"container-title":null,"volume":"24","issue":"15","page":"2701"}]

[{"id":3917,"citationNumber":"10.","type":"article-journal","title":"Composition analysis and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and the hydrosol extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis L","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"D.H.","family":"Jeon"},{"given":"J.Y.","family":"Moon"},{"given":"H.B.","family":"Hyun"},{"given":"S.K.","family":"Cho"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2013"]},"container-title":"and Lavandula angustifolia Mill. produced in Jeju. Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry","volume":"56","issue":null,"page":"141\u2013146"}]

[{"id":3918,"citationNumber":"11.","type":"journal-article","title":"Nouvelles perspectives industrielles pour les hydrolats","DOI":"10.1080\/12538078.2008.10516117","author":[{"given":"Jacques","family":"Kaloustian"},{"given":"Ce\u00e9line","family":"Mikail"},{"given":"Lydia","family":"Abou"},{"given":"Marie-France","family":"Vergnes"},{"given":"Alain","family":"Nicolay"},{"given":"Henri","family":"Portugal"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2008"]},"container-title":null,"volume":"155","issue":"3","page":"367-373"}]

[{"id":3919,"citationNumber":"12.","type":"article-journal","title":"Determination of lavender and lavandin cultivars (Lavandula sp.) containing high quality essential oil in Isparta, Turkey","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"N.","family":"Kara"},{"given":"H.","family":"Baydar"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2013"]},"container-title":"Turkish Journal of Field Crops","volume":"18","issue":null,"page":"58\u201365"}]

[{"id":3920,"citationNumber":"13.","type":"journal-article","title":"Preservative activity of lavender hydrosols in moisturizing body gels","DOI":"10.1111\/lam.12346","author":[{"given":"A.","family":"Kunicka-Styczy\u0144ska"},{"given":"K.","family":"\u015amigielski"},{"given":"R.","family":"Prusinowska"},{"given":"K.","family":"Rajkowska"},{"given":"B.","family":"Ku\u015bmider"},{"given":"M.","family":"Sikora"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2015"]},"container-title":null,"volume":"60","issue":"1","page":"27-32"}]

[{"id":3921,"citationNumber":"14.","type":"journal-article","title":"Hydrosols of orange blossom ( Citrus aurantium ), and rose flower ( Rosa damascena and Rosa centifolia ) support the growth of a heterogeneous spoilage microbiota","DOI":"10.1016\/j.foodres.2015.07.014","author":[{"given":"C\u00e9cile","family":"Labadie"},{"given":"Christian","family":"Ginies"},{"given":"Marie-H\u00e9l\u00e8ne","family":"Guinebretiere"},{"given":"Catherine M.G.C.","family":"Renard"},{"given":"C\u00e9line","family":"Cerutti"},{"given":"Fr\u00e9d\u00e9ric","family":"Carlin"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2015"]},"container-title":null,"volume":"76","issue":null,"page":"576-586"}]

[{"id":3922,"citationNumber":"15.","type":"journal-article","title":"Essential oils and distilled straws of lavender and lavandin: a review of current use and potential application in white biotechnology","DOI":"10.1007\/s00253-015-6511-7","author":[{"given":"Laurence","family":"Lesage-Meessen"},{"given":"Marine","family":"Bou"},{"given":"Jean-Claude","family":"Sigoillot"},{"given":"Craig B.","family":"Faulds"},{"given":"Anne","family":"Lomascolo"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2015"]},"container-title":null,"volume":"99","issue":"8","page":"3375-3385"}]

[{"id":3923,"citationNumber":"16.","type":"book","title":"Lavender: the genus Lavandula, Medicinal and aromatic plants\u2013industrial profiles","DOI":null,"author":[],"issued":{"date-parts":["2002"]},"container-title":null,"volume":null,"issue":null,"page":null}]

[{"id":3924,"citationNumber":"17.","type":"article-journal","title":"Lavandin hydrolat applications to Petit Verdot vineyards and their impact on their wine aroma compounds","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"A.M.","family":"Mart\u00ednez-Gil"},{"given":"A.I.","family":"Pardo-Garc\u00eda"},{"given":"A.","family":"Zalacain"},{"given":"G.L.","family":"Alonso"},{"given":"M.R.","family":"Salinas"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2013"]},"container-title":"Food Research International","volume":"53","issue":null,"page":"391\u2013402"}]

[{"id":3925,"citationNumber":"18.","type":"book","title":"Pharmacopoea Jugoslavica","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"Ph","family":"Jug."}],"issued":{"date-parts":["1984"]},"container-title":null,"volume":null,"issue":null,"page":null}]

[{"id":3926,"citationNumber":"19.","type":"journal-article","title":"Agronomic and phytochemical evaluation of lavandin and lavender cultivars cultivated in the Tyrrhenian area of Tuscany (Italy)","DOI":"10.1016\/j.indcrop.2017.07.041","author":[{"given":"L.","family":"Pistelli"},{"given":"B.","family":"Najar"},{"given":"S.","family":"Giovanelli"},{"given":"L.","family":"Lorenzini"},{"given":"S.","family":"Tavarini"},{"given":"L.G.","family":"Angelini"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2017"]},"container-title":null,"volume":"109","issue":null,"page":"37-44"}]

[{"id":3927,"citationNumber":"20.","type":"journal-article","title":"Reconsidering Hydrosols as Main Products of Aromatic Plants Manufactory: The Lavandin (Lavandula \u00d7 intermedia) Case Study in Tuscany","DOI":"10.3390\/molecules25092225","author":[{"given":"Matteo","family":"Politi"},{"given":"Luigi","family":"Menghini"},{"given":"Barbara","family":"Conti"},{"given":"Stefano","family":"Bedini"},{"given":"Priscilla","family":"Farina"},{"given":"Pier Luigi","family":"Cioni"},{"given":"Alessandra","family":"Braca"},{"given":"Marinella","family":"De Leo"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[null]},"container-title":null,"volume":"25","issue":"9","page":"2225"}]

[{"id":3928,"citationNumber":"21.","type":"article-journal","title":"Understanding hydrolats: The specific hydrosols for aromatherapy: A guide for health professionals","DOI":null,"author":[],"issued":{"date-parts":["2004"]},"container-title":null,"volume":null,"issue":null,"page":null}]

[{"id":3929,"citationNumber":"22.","type":"journal-article","title":"Hydrolates from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) \u2013 their chemical composition as well as aromatic, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties","DOI":"10.1080\/14786419.2015.1016939","author":[{"given":"Renata","family":"Prusinowska"},{"given":"Krzysztof","family":"\u015amigielski"},{"given":"Agnieszka","family":"Stobiecka"},{"given":"Alina","family":"Kunicka-Styczy\u0144ska"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2016"]},"container-title":null,"volume":"30","issue":"4","page":"386-393"}]

[{"id":3930,"citationNumber":"23.","type":"chapter","title":"Hydrosols and water-soluble essential oils: their medicinal and biological properties","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"B.R.","family":"Rajeswara Rao"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2013"]},"container-title":"Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants: Essential Oils I","volume":null,"issue":null,"page":"119\u2013140"}]

[{"id":3931,"citationNumber":"24.","type":"journal-article","title":"Essential Oil Quantity and Composition from 10 Cultivars of Organically Grown Lavender and Lavandin","DOI":"10.1080\/10412905.2001.9699691","author":[{"given":"Erica N. C.","family":"Renaud"},{"given":"Denys J.","family":"Charles"},{"given":"James E.","family":"Simon"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2001"]},"container-title":null,"volume":"13","issue":"4","page":"269-273"}]

[{"id":3932,"citationNumber":"25.","type":"book","title":"375 essential oils and hydrosols","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"J.","family":"Rose"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["1999"]},"container-title":null,"volume":null,"issue":null,"page":null}]

[{"id":3933,"citationNumber":"26.","type":"article-journal","title":"Water balance in hydrosol production via steam distillation: case study using lavandin (texttiLavandula x intermedia","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"J.","family":"Simon"},{"given":"P.","family":"Tannous"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["XXXX"]},"container-title":null,"volume":null,"issue":null,"page":null}]

[{"id":3934,"citationNumber":"27.","type":"journal-article","title":"Comparison of qualitative and quantitative chemical composition of hydrolate and essential oils of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)","DOI":"10.1080\/10412905.2013.775080","author":[{"given":"Krzysztof B.","family":"\u015amigielski"},{"given":"Renata","family":"Prusinowska"},{"given":"Krzysztof","family":"Krosowiak"},{"given":"Magdalena","family":"Sikora"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2013"]},"container-title":null,"volume":"25","issue":"4","page":"291-299"}]

[{"id":3935,"citationNumber":"28.","type":"article-journal","title":"Water balance in hydrosol production viasteam distillation: case study using lavandin","DOI":null,"author":[{"given":"P.","family":"Tannous"},{"given":"R.","family":"Julini"},{"given":"M.","family":"Wang"},{"given":"M.","family":"Simon"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2004"]},"container-title":null,"volume":null,"issue":null,"page":null}]

[{"id":3936,"citationNumber":"29.","type":"article-journal","title":"A preliminary analysis of some lavender and lavandin cultivars","DOI":null,"author":[],"issued":{"date-parts":["1984"]},"container-title":"Perfumer and flavorist","volume":"9","issue":null,"page":"49\u201352"}]

[{"id":3937,"citationNumber":"30.","type":"book","title":"Handbook of Aqueous Solubility Data","DOI":"10.1201\/ebk1439802458","author":[{"given":"Samuel H.","family":"Yalkowsky"},{"given":"Yan","family":"He"},{"given":"Parijat","family":"Jain"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[null]},"container-title":null,"volume":null,"issue":null,"page":null}]

[{"id":3938,"citationNumber":"31.","type":"journal-article","title":"Amendment of soils with fresh and post-extraction lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lavandin (Lavandula\u00d7intermedia) reduce inoculum of Verticillium dahliae and inhibit wilt in strawberry","DOI":"10.1016\/j.apsoil.2011.05.006","author":[{"given":"David","family":"Yohalem"},{"given":"Thomas","family":"Passey"}],"issued":{"date-parts":["2011"]},"container-title":null,"volume":"49","issue":null,"page":"187-196"}]

Citation

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 

Article metrics

Google scholar: See link

The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publisher and the editor(s). We stay neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.